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Immunization Action Coalition

Vaccine-Related Journal Articles

Laws, Exemptions, Requirements: Exemptions

Civil Liberties Exemptions
Archive 2002-1981
Exemptions 2016
Association Between Vaccine Refusal and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States: A Review of Measles and Pertussis
Authors: Phadke VK, Bednarczyk RA, Salmon DA, Omer SB
Source: JAMA, March 15, 2016, Vol. 315(11):1149-58
Archive 2002-1981
Exemptions 2015
Characteristics of Physicians Who Dismiss Families for Refusing Vaccines
Authors: O'Leary ST, Allison MA, Fisher A, et al.
Source: Pediatrics, e-published December 2015
WHO Recommendations Regarding Vaccine Hesitancy (multiple articles)
Source: Vaccine, August 14, 2015, Vol. 33(34):4155-4218
Shifting Vaccination Politics—The End of Personal-Belief Exemptions in California
Authors: Mello MM, Studdert DM, Parmet WE
Source: NEJM, e-published July 22, 2015
Full Article
Personal Belief Exemptions to Vaccination in California: A Spatial Analysis
Authors: Carrel M, Bitterman P
Source: Pediatrics, July 2015, Vol. 136(1):80-8
Substandard Vaccination Compliance and the 2015 Measles Outbreak
Authors: Majumder MS, Cohn EL, Mekaru SR, Huston JE, Brownstein JS
Source: JAMA Pediatr, e-published March 16, 2015
Full Article
Geographic Clusters in Underimmunization and Vaccine Refusal
Authors: Lieu TA, Ray GT, Klein NP, Chung C, Kulldorff M
Source: Peiatrics, e-published January 19, 2015
Abstract  |  Full article
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Exemptions 2014
Vaccination Coverage among Children in Kindergarten—United States, 2013–14 School Year
Source: MMWR, October 17, 2014, Vol. 63(41):913-20
Measles Outbreak in an Unvaccinated Family and a Possibly Associated International Traveler—Orange County, Florida, December 2012–January 2013
Source: MMWR, September 12, 2014, Vol. 63(36):781-4
Potential Effects of California's New Vaccine Exemption Law on the Prevalence and Clustering of Exemptions
Authors: Jones M, Buttenheim A
Source: Am J Public Health, September 2014, Vol. 104(9):e3-6
Notes from the Field: Outbreak of Pertussis in a School and Religious Community Averse to Health Care and Vaccinations—Columbia County, Florida, 2013
Source: MMWR, August 1, 2014, Vol. 63(30):655
Notes from the Field: Measles—California, January 1–April 18, 2014
Source: MMWR, April 25, 2014, Vol. 63(16):362-3
Legislative Challenges to School Immunization Mandates, 2009–2012
Authors: Omer SB, Peterson D, Curran EA, Hinman A, Orenstein WA
Source: JAMA, February 2014, Vol. 14;311(6):620-621
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Exemptions 2013
Delaying Vaccination Is Not a Safer Choice
Authors: Feemster KA, Offit P
Source: JAMA Pediatr, e-published October 14, 2013
Nonmedical Vaccine Exemptions and Pertussis in California, 2010
Authors: Atwell JE, Van Otterloo J, Zipprich J, et al.
Source: Pediatrics, October 2013, Vol. 132(4):624-630
Measles — United States, January 1–August 24, 2013
Source: MMWR, September 13, 2013, Vol. 62(36):741-3
Notes from the Field: Measles Outbreak among Members of a Religious Community — Brooklyn, New York, March–June 2013
Source: MMWR, September 13, 2013, Vol. 62(36):752-3
Notes from the Field: Measles Outbreak Associated with a Traveler Returning from India — North Carolina, April–May 2013
Source: MMWR, September 13, 2013, Vol. 62(36):753
Association between Undervaccination with Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, and Acellular Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine and Risk of Pertussis Infection in Children 3 to 36 Months of Age
Authors: Glanz JM, Narwaney KJ, Newcomer SR, et al
Source: JAMA Pediatr, e-published September 9, 2013
Provider Dismissal Policies and Clustering of Vaccine-Hesitant Families: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach
Authors: Buttenheim AM, Cherng ST, Asch DA
Source: Hum Vaccin Immunother, July 5, 2013, Vol. 9(8)
Exempting Schoolchildren from Immunizations: States with Few Barriers Had Highest Rates of Nonmedical Exemptions
Authors: Blank NR, Caplan AL, Constable C
Source: Health Aff (Millwood), July 2013, Vol. 32(7):1282-90
Religious Exemptions for Immunization and Risk of Pertussis in New York State, 2000–2011
Authors: dad A, Tserenpuntsag B, Blog DS, Halsey NA, Easton DE, Shaw J
Source: Pediatrics, July 2013, Vol. 132(1):37-43
Nonmedical Exemptions to Immunization Requirements in California: A 16-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Trends and Associated Community Factors
Authors: Richards JL, Wagenaar BH, Van Otterloo J, et al.
Source: Vaccine, e-published May 10, 2013
Go Big and Go Fast−Vaccine Refusal and Disease Eradication
Authors: Omer SB, Orenstein WA, Koplan JP
Source: N Engl J Med, April 11, 2013
Full Article
Correlates of High Vaccination Exemption Rates among Kindergartens
Authors: Birnbaum MS, Jacobs ET, Ralston-King J, Ernst KC
Source: Vaccine, January 21, 2013, Vol. 31(5):750-6
A Population-Based Cohort Study of Undervaccination in 8 Managed Care Organizations Across the United States
Authors: Glanz JM, Newcomer SR, Narwaney KJ, et al.
Source: JAMA Pediatr, published online January 21, 2013
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Exemptions 2012
Medical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements in the United States--Association of State Policies with Medical Exemption Rates (2004-2011)
Authors: Stadlin S, Bednarczyk RA, Omer SB
Source: J Infect Dis, October 2012, Vol. 206(7):989-92
Exposure of California Kindergartners to Students with Personal Belief Exemptions from Mandated School Entry Vaccinations
Authors: Buttenheim A, Jones M, Baras Y
Source: Am J Public Health, August 2012, Vol. 102(8):e59-67
Notes from the Field: Severe Varicella in an Immunocompromised Child Exposed to an Unvaccinated Sibling with Varicella--Minnesota, 2011
Source: MMWR, July 20, 2012, Vol. 61(28):541
Vaccine Policy and Arkansas Childhood Immunization Exemptions: A Multi-Year Review
Authors: Safi H, Wheeler JG, Reeve GR, et al.
Source: Am J Prev Med, June 2012, Vol. 42(6):602-5
Risk Factors Associated with Parents Claiming Personal-Belief Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements: Community and Other Influences on More Skeptical Parents in Oregon, 2006
Authors: Gaudino JA, Robison S
Source: Vaccine, February 1, 2012, Vol. 30(6):1132-42
Parents' Source of Vaccine Information and Impact on Vaccine Attitudes, Beliefs, and Nonmedical Exemptions
Authors: Jones AM, Omer SB, Bednarczyk RA, Halsey NA, Moulton LH, Salmon DA
Source: Adv Prev Med, 2012:932741
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Exemptions 2011
Vaccination Refusal: Ethics, Individual Rights, and the Common Good
Authors: Schwartz JL, Caplan AL
Source: Prim Care, December 2011, Vol. 38(4):717-28
Childhood Immunization: When Physicians and Parents Disagree
Authors: Gilmour J, Harrison C, Asadi L, Cohen MH, Vohra S
Source: Pediatrics, November 2011, Vol. 128 Suppl 4:S167-74
Why We Should Eliminate Personal Belief Exemptions to Vaccine Mandates
Authors: Lantos JD, Jackson MA, Harrison CJ
Source: J Health Polit Policy Law, October 14, 2011
Finding the Proper Balance between Freedom and Justice: Why We Should Not Eliminate Personal Belief Exemptions to Vaccine Mandates
Authors: Opel DJ, Diekema DS
Source: J Health Polit Policy Law, October 14, 2011
Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model
Authors: Smith PJ, Humiston SG, Marcuse EK, et al.
Source: Public Health Rep, July-August 2011, Vol. 126 Suppl 2:135-46
Pediatricians' Experience with and Response to Parental Vaccine Safety Concerns and Vaccine Refusals: A Survey of Connecticut Pediatricians
Authors: Leib S, Liberatos P, Edwards K
Source: Public Health Rep, July-August 2011, Vol. 126 Suppl 2:13-23
Vaccination Coverage among Children in Kindergarten --United States, 2009-10 School Year
Source: MMWR, June 3, 2011, Vol. 60(21):700-4
The Age-Old Struggle against the Antivaccinationists
Authors: Poland GA, Jacobson RM
Source: N Engl J Med, January 13, 2011, Vol. 364(2):97-9
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Exemptions 2010
Could the United States Experience Rubella Outbreaks as a Result of Vaccine Refusal and Disease Importation?
Authors: Berger BE, Omer SB
Source: Hum Vaccin, December 2010, Vol. 6(12):1016-20
Measles in the United States during the Postelimination Era
Authors: Parker Fiebelkorn A, Redd SB, Gallagher K, Rota PA, Rota J, Bellini W, Seward J
Source: J Infect Dis, November 15, 2010, Vol. 202(10):1520-8
Compulsory School-Entry Vaccination Laws and Exemptions: Who Is Opting Out in Ontario and Why Does it Matter?
Authors: Mah CL, Guttmann A, McGeer A, Krahn M, Deber RB
Source: Healthc Policy, May 2010, Vol. 5(4):37-46
Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population, San Diego, 2008: Role of the Intentionally Undervaccinated
Authors: Sugerman DE, Barskey AE, Delea MG, et al.
Source: Pediatrics, April 2010, Vol. 125(4):747-55
Parental Refusal of Varicella Vaccination and the Associated Risk of Varicella Infection in Children
Authors: Glanz JM, McClure DL, Magid DJ, Daley MF, France EK, Hambidge SJ
Source: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, January 2010, Vol. 164(1):66-70
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Exemptions 2009
Pediatric Vaccination and Vaccine-Preventable Disease Acquisition: Associations with Care by Complementary and Alternative Medicine Providers
Authors: Downey L, Tyree PT, Huebner CE, Lafferty WE
Source: Matern Child Health J, September 17, 2009
Rubella Outbreak in the Netherlands, 2004-2005: High Burden of Congenital Infection and Spread to Canada
Authors: Hahne S, Macey J, van Binnendijk, et al.
Source: Pediatr Infect Dis J, September 2009, Vol. 28(9):795-800
Parental Refusal of Pertussis Vaccination Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Pertussis Infection in Children
Authors: Glanz JM, McClure DL, Magid DJ
Source: Pediatrics, May 26, 2009
Full Article
Vaccine Refusal, Mandatory Immunization, and the Risks of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
Authors: Omer SB, Salmon, DA, Orenstein WA, deHart MP, Halsey N
Source: N Engl J Med, May 7, 2009
Full Article
Social Marketing as a Strategy to Increase Immunization Rates
Authors: Opel DJ, Diekema DS, Lee NR, Marcuse EK
Source: Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, May 2009, Vol. 163(5):432-7
Parental Vaccine Refusal in Wisconsin: A Case-Control Study
Authors: Salmon DA, Sotir MJ, Pan WK, et al.
Source: WMJ, February 2009, Vol. 108(1):17-23
Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Type B Disease in Five Young Children--Minnesota, 2008
Source: MMWR, January 30, 2009, Vol. 58(03):58-60
Pneumonia Hospitalizations among Young Children Before and After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine--United States, 1997-2006
Authors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Source: MMWR, January 16, 2009, Vol. 58(1):1-4
The Problem with Dr Bob's Alternative Vaccine Schedule
Authors: Offit, PA, Moser CA
Source: Pediatics, January 1, 2009, Vol. 123(1): e164-9
Full text
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Exemptions 2008
Geographic Clustering of Nonmedical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements and Associations with Geographic Clustering of Pertussis
Authors: Omer SB, Enger KS, Moulton LH, Halsey NA, Stokley S, Salmon DA
Source: Am J Epidemiol, December 15, 2008, Vol. 168(12):1389-96
Update: Measles--United States, January-July 2008
Source: MMWR, August 22, 2008, Vol. 57(33):893-6
Vaccine Knowledge and Practices of Primary Care Providers of Exempt vs. Vaccinated Children
Authors: Salmon DA, Pan WK, Omer SB
Source: Hum Vaccin, July-August 2008, Vol. 4(4):286-91
The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments FOR and AGAINST Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls
Authors: Vamos CA, McDermott RJ, Daley EM
Source: J Sch Health, June 2008, Vol. 78(6):302-9
A Proposed Ethical Framework for Vaccine Mandates: Competing Values and the Case of HPV
Authors: Field RI, Caplan AL
Source: Kennedy Inst Ethics J, June 2008, Vol. 18(2):111-24
Measles Outbreak Associated with a Church Congregation: A Study of Immunization Attitudes of Congregation Members
Authors: Kennedy AM, Gust DA
Source: Public Health Rep, March-April 2008, Vol. 123(2):126-34
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Exemptions 2007
Assessing State Immunization Requirements for Healthcare Workers and Patients
Authors: Lindley MC, Horlick GA, Shefer AM, Shaw FE, Gorji M
Source: Am J Prev Med, June 2007; 32(6):459-465
Impact of Addition of Philosophical Exemptions on Childhood Immunization Rates
Authors: Thompson JW, Tyson S, Card-Higginson P, et al
Source: Am J Prev Med, March 2007; 32(3):194-201
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Exemptions 2006
Vaccination Usage among an Old-Order Amish Community in Illinois
Authors: Yoder JS, Dworkin MS
Source: Pediatr Infect Dis J, December 2006; 25(12):1182-1183
Nonmedical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements: Secular Trends and Association of State Policies with Pertussis Incidence
Authors: Omer SB, Pan WK, Halsey NA, et al
Source: JAMA, October 11, 2006, Vol. 296:1757-1763
Implications of a 2005 Measles Outbreak in Indiana for Sustained Elimination of Measles in the United States
Parker AA, Staggs W, Dayan GH, et al
Source: N Engl J Med, August 3, 2006, Vol. 355(5):447-55
Compulsory Vaccination and Conscientious or Philosophical Exemptions: Past, Present, and Future
Authors: Salmon DA, Teret SP, MacIntyre CR, Salisbury D, Burgess A, Halsey NA
Source: The Lancet, February 4, 2006, Vol. 367(9508):436-442
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Exemptions 2005
Catholic Refusals of Immunization: Such Actions Are Often Unjustified
Author: Furton EJ.
Source: Ethics Medics, December 2005, Vol. 30(12):1-2
The Cost of Containing One Case of Measles: The Economic Impact on the Public Health Infrastructure--Iowa, 2004
Authors: Dayan GH, Ortega-Sánchez I, LeBaron CW, Quinlisk MP, and the Iowa Measles Response Team
Source: Pediatrics, July 2005, Vol. 116(1):e1-4
Public Health and the Politics of School Immunization Requirements
Authors: Salmon DA, Sapsin JW, Teret S, Jacobs RF, Thompson JW, Ryan K, Halsey NA
Source: American Journal of Public Health, May 2005, Vol. 95(5):778-783
Factors Associated with Refusal of Childhood Vaccines Among Parents of School-Aged Children: A Case-Control Study
Authors: Salmon DA, Moulton LH, Omer SB, Dehart MP, Stokley S, Halsey NA
Source: Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, May 2005, Vol. 159(5):470-6
Exemptions for School Immunization Requirements: The Role of School-Level Requirements, Policies, and Procedures
Authors: Salmon DA, Omer SB, Moulton LH, et al.
Source: American Journal of Public Health, March 2005, Vol. 95(3):436-440
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Exemptions 2004-2003
Vanishing Vaccinations: Why Are So Many Americans Opting Out of Vaccinating their Children?
Author: Calandrillo SP
Source: Univ Mich J Law Reform, Winter 2004, Vol. 37(2):353-440
Knowledge, Attitude, and Beliefs of School Nurses and Personnel and Associations with Nonmedical Immunization Exemptions
Authors: Salmon DA, Moulton LH, Omer SB, et al.
Source: Pediatrics, June 2004, Vol. 113(6):e552-9
No more Kidding Around: Restructuring Non-Medical Childhood Immunization Exemptions to Ensure Public Health Protection
Author: Silverman RD
Source: Annals of Public Law, Summer 2003, Vol. 12(2):277-294
Clustering of Exemptions' as a Collective Action Threat to Herd Immunity
Authors: May T, Silverman RD
Source: Vaccine, March 7, 2003, Vol 21(11-12):1048-1051
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Exemptions Archive
Exemptions journal articles 2002-1981
This page was updated on May 26, 2016.
This page was reviewed on May 26, 2016.
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